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What are the complications of Down syndrome

Down syndrome is one of the genetic diseases that is attributed to the presence of a disorder in cell division, which causes an increase in the copy of chromosome number 21, and this makes the total number of chromosomes in a person with this syndrome 47 chromosomes instead of 46, and this condition affects in various aspects Of a person’s life, including physical features, mental abilities, and the injured person’s health status as well.

Down syndrome complications:

The incidence of Down syndrome leads to many complications, which appear more clearly as the patient gets older, and the following is a statement for each of them:

Congenital heart defects:

As the percentage of children with Down syndrome who are born with congenital heart defects is about 50%, and these defects may be life-threatening and in some cases it may be necessary to undergo surgery in the early stages of life, and the septal defect also known as heart holes is the most common. The condition is noticed that there is a hole in one of the walls separating the four heart chambers, and therefore when a child is diagnosed with Down syndrome, the necessary heart examinations are performed to determine the nature of the problems he suffers from in order to take the appropriate action as soon as possible.

Digestive problems:

As many people with Down syndrome suffer from various digestive and intestinal problems of their variety and severity, and these problems include disturbances in the intestine, bronchi, esophagus, and anus, and the patient may suffer from constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, small intestine obstruction, and disease Wheat allergy, anal atresia, and reflux.

Hearing problems:

Where people with Down syndrome suffer from hearing problems, whether it is permanent or temporary, and this is due to the accumulation of fluid in the middle ear, and as a result of these problems, the patient must see an otolaryngologist.

Thyroid problems:

As one in 10 people with Down syndrome suffers from thyroid problems, and this affects the body's ability to use energy and metabolism as well, and people with Down syndrome often suffer from hypothyroidism, and a set of signs and symptoms indicate infection. In this case, including weight gain, lack of energy, and slow reactions of the body and mind, as for the diagnosis, it is made after performing blood tests and this condition can be controlled by taking the medications prescribed by the doctor, according to his instructions.

 Immune disorders:

Whereas, people with Down syndrome are prone to frequent disorders and infections and to the presence of an imbalance in their immune system, which makes them vulnerable to other diseases, including cancers, and this condition can be controlled by giving the child routine childhood vaccinations, in addition to vaccinations. Others that reduce the risk of infection, such as the annual influenza vaccine, and in cases of bacterial infection, it is required to take antibiotics to treat the condition.


Patients with Down syndrome are more likely to develop dementia at an earlier age compared to other people. Signs and symptoms of this disease may begin when they reach the age of forty, and symptoms of dementia appear in the form of problems with understanding and memory, and confusion, and the risk of these patients developing Alzheimer's disease increases.